Inhomogeneity and anisotropy are intrinsic characteristics of daytime and nighttime turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer. In the present paper, line-of-sight sound propagation through inhomogeneous, anisotropic turbulence with temperature and velocity fluctuations is considered. Starting from a parabolic equation and using the Markov approximation, formulas are derived for the correlation functions and variances of log-amplitude and phase fluctuations of a spherical sound wave. These statistical moments of a sound field are important for many practical applications in atmospheric acoustics. The derived formulas for the correlation functions and variances generalize those already known in the literature for two limiting cases: (a) homogeneous, isotropic turbulence, and (b) inhomogeneous, anisotropic turbulence with temperature fluctuations only. Furthermore, the formulas differ from those for the case of plane wave propagation. Using the derived formulas and Mann’s spectral tensor of velocity fluctuations for shear-driven turbulence, the correlation functions and variances of log-amplitude and phase fluctuations are studied numerically. The results obtained clearly show that turbulence inhomogeneity and anisotropy significantly affect sound propagation in the atmosphere. © 2004 Acoustical Society of America.