This paper reports two experiments concerning the stimulus specificity of pitch discrimination learning. In experiment 1, listeners were initially trained, during ten sessions (about 11 000 trials), to discriminate a monaural pure tone of 3000 Hz from ipsilateral pure tones with slightly different frequencies. The resulting perceptual learning (improvement in discrimination thresholds) appeared to be frequency-specific since, in subsequent sessions, new learning was observed when the 3000-Hz standard tone was replaced by a standard tone of 1200 Hz, or 6500 Hz. By contrast, a subsequent presentation of the initial tones to the contralateral ear showed that the initial learning was not, or was only weakly, ear-specific. In experiment 2, training in pitch discrimination was initially provided using complex tones that consisted of harmonics 3–7 of a missing fundamental (near 100 Hz for some listeners, 500 Hz for others). Subsequently, the standard complex was replaced by a standard pure tone with a frequency which could be either equal to the standard complex’s missing fundamental or remote from it. In the former case, the two standard stimuli were matched in pitch. However, this perceptual relationship did not appear to favor the transfer of learning. Therefore, the results indicated that pitch discrimination learning is, at least to some extent, timbre-specific, and cannot be viewed as a reduction of an internal noise which would affect directly the output of a neural device extracting pitch from both pure tones and complex tones including low-rank harmonics. © 2002 Acoustical Society of America.